Hydrophilic are substances that are water loving. Such compands have an affinity to water and are usually charged or have polar side groups to their structure that will attract water. Sugar is known to be hydrophilic. Sugars contain many polar hydroxyl groups so they are quite hydrophylic.

Enzymes are protiens that catalyze chemical reactions. A banana has loads of enzymes in it that are needed to transfer its own starch into simple sugar.

Fermentation in food processing is the conversion of carbs  to alcohols and carbon dioxide or organic acids using yeasts and bacteria. cheese is a type of fermenated, dairy-based food.

Plants use mitochondria to break up carbohydrates in order to release the energy needed for making ATP

Long-day plants require fewer than a certain number of hours of darkness in each 24- hour period to induce flowering,. Potatoes are considered to be long-day plants.